International trade mainly refers to the code of thought that dominates and governs the economic transaction activities after the trade activities carried out internationally have entered a certain stage in the process of continuous development, and the people involved in trade activities have formed together. Even if there is no clear regulation, in the trade distribution level still has a role that should not be underestimated.

At present, China’s trade is in a critical period of rapid development, the international trade theory used in the past to a certain extent there are inapplicable problems, in the actual operation process reflects many aspects of the loopholes and deficiencies, can not meet the new situation of China’s basic needs in the development of trade. Complex international relations and international political landscape will to some extent affect the theory of international trade, which requires the relevant researchers in the existing theoretical basis for the support of all aspects of the details of the continuous development and improvement.

  Traditional international trade theory

  In the past in the mainstream of international trade theory, the most representative trade concept contains two kinds of neoclassical and classical trade theory, these two theories together constitute the traditional trade theory. After the first industrial revolution, the status of capital in economic development has been rising, becoming the dominant theory in international trade. At the same time, the international political landscape has also undergone a relatively large change, the new trade concept has also grown up in this context.

  Contemporary international trade theories and the challenges faced

  The Second World War changed the world political landscape, and the theory of international trade in the process of changing the way of trade activities also reflects a relatively large difference from the traditional way of trade. In the new period, the specific trade activities are no longer limited to the traditional trade theory and trade rules.

The countries that won World War II have a higher status in international trade than before, and the international trade volume has shown a trend of increasing year by year, and reflects a certain expansion, and in the process of increasing trade volume in developed countries, reflects a certain trade activity, and the explanation and description of these phenomena can not be achieved through traditional theories, and thus the primary form of today’s international trade theory. For example, factor trade theory and life cycle theory, etc.

  In the past thirty years of reform and opening up, China’s position in international trade has been increasing. At the same time, Western economists through long-term theoretical analysis and repeated model experiments, the following conclusion: the current international trade in terms of scale is rising, however, its competitive form is still imperfect competition, the factors of production in the increasingly competitive market environment is declining, which is obviously different from the traditional international trade theory, but can be the changes that have occurred in the current international trade Certain explanation.

In the environment of increasing trade, trade monopolies are becoming more and more serious, and this “anomaly” can be adequately explained in the environment of contemporary trade theory. It can be seen that contemporary trade theory can still play a role in the present and the future period. In the process of international trade development, the relevant theories are also in the stage of continuous improvement. However, in the changing environment of national defense political landscape and economic globalization development, the existing international trade theory also faces challenges in the following aspects.

  1. Manufacturing trade is constantly improving

  Economies of scale is one of the important characteristics of manufacturing industry, and after the Second World War, the role of international division of labor in manufacturing industry has become more and more obvious, and developed countries have transferred a large amount of capital to developing countries. In the context of increasingly competitive manufacturing market, it is impossible to explain this phenomenon through traditional theories.

  2. Horizontal trade within developed countries

  In the traditional comparative advantage theory environment, it can be found through the analysis of factor endowment theory that the analysis of national trade needs to be centered on the differences between countries at different levels of development, which means that the trade relationship between upstream and downstream should be analyzed under vertical trade conditions. However, after the Second World War, the type of trade that was prominent in the international trading system was horizontal trade, and this horizontal trade was mainly reflected in the horizontal trade conducted within developed countries. Why horizontal trade will occupy the main position of international trade, the current international trade theory can not give a reasonable explanation.

  The future trend of international trade

  1. Dynamic development

  After the Second World War, many scholars have begun to find that the traditional trade theory in a variety of new issues are not adaptable to a variety of new trade phenomena can not be adequately explained and explained. Many scholars in the field of international trade began to further explore and study the laws related to the development of international trade in the new situation.

Raymond Vernon studied and analyzed the disturbance of product design and product cycle in the process of continuous development of science and technology, and realized that the improvement of production factors could extend the product cycle by human intervention. Michael Bogor later incorporated the enterprise and government structure into the integrated enterprise theory, and elevated the enterprise and government to the status of trade subjects.

It is not difficult to find that the theory of international trade in the process of continuous development, the theory of enterprise and penetration into the theory of international trade has produced an important link to the actual development of the field has played a good role in promoting.

  2. Integration of institutional economics

  International trade is a typical economic phenomenon. Contemporary international trade theory and traditional trade theory also contains a lot of knowledge in economics, the main object of study is the market, in the process of continuous integration of economic knowledge and international trade theory, economic patterns and market scope and other factors have also become the main object of study and analysis, in international trade activities have also been accurately implemented, in some cases, the state may also be involved in the international trade In some cases, the state may also be involved in the actual activities of international trade, which makes the integration of spatial economics in the theory of international trade, in international trade plays an important role in the guidance.


  The overall level of the international economy, complex international relations, and the international political landscape have a fundamental impact on the theory of international trade

Therefore, in the process of continuous development of the international community, international trade theory is also constantly changing. In order to comply with the current development trend of international trade, research experts in the field need to conduct long-term observation and analysis of the current international environment, political landscape, the level of economic globalization and changes in trade patterns, with new theories and new concepts to provide guidance for specific international trade operations.

Discussion on the development ideas and new tendencies of international trade theory

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